Impact of military on biofuels consumption and GHG emissions: the evidence from G7 countries

Bildirici M. E.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, cilt.25, sa.14, ss.13560-13568, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 25 Konu: 14
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s11356-018-1545-x
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.13560-13568


It was aimed to test the relation among the greenhouse gases emissions, economic growth, biofuels consumption, and militarization in G7 countries during the 1985-2015 period by Pedroni 1995 and panel Johansen tests and two long-run estimators-dynamic OLS and fully modified OLS. Long-run estimators found that economic growth and militarization have statistically significant positive impact on CO 2 emission of G7 countries. Furthermore, the panel causality tests were applied: Dumitrescu and Hurlin (Econ Model 29(4):1450-1460, 2012) and panel Granger causality. These tests determined the causal relationship between the variables. The results of this paper implied that economic growth and biofuels consumption depend on militarization, and economic growth and militarization are granger causes of the greenhouse gases emissions.