Sürdürülebilir Mimari Yaklaşım ile Tasarlanmış Okul Öncesi Eğitim Yapılarında Ergonomi Kavramının Bahriye Üçok Ekolojik Anaokulu Örneği Üzerinden İncelenmesi


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Kızılkan G., Canbay Türkyılmaz Ç.

Megaron, cilt.16, sa.1, ss.53-67, 2021 (Hakemli Üniversite Dergisi)

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 16 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2021
  • Doi Numarası: 10.14744/megaron.2021.03743
  • Dergi Adı: Megaron
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.53-67

Özet

Education plays a vital role in the modern world. Educational facilities should provide an efficient environment that shapes the lifestyle and understanding of the society with the help of an interdisciplinary collaboration. According to the psychological research, preschoolers who visit kindergarten, which was built with ecologicalarchitectural approaches, have the potential to raise awareness on environmental issues. Therefore, educational buildings designed for early age children as theplace where learning takes place, can become environments that develop creativity, reveal talents, contribute to physiological growth, and create a sense of responsibility in order to raise young individuals to become more sensitive to society and the surrounding environment. In the present study, a detached pre-school educationalbuilding, which was designed upon sustainable criteria for 3–6-year aged children, and received LEED Platinum certificate in 2017, was selected as the field ofstudy. The spatial organization of the structure was examined thoroughly within the scope of ergonomics. Ergonomics can also offer an interdisciplinary scientific approach to the need for change in human behavior, propose to reduce the environmental problems through the correct balance of use between the workplace, the working instruments, and the human factor. The design decisions of the sample building have been compared with the inquiries made after a comprehensive literature review. Thus, it was aimed that the findings and evaluations could be used in improving the ergonomics of the detached preschool educational building design, project decisions and implementations. The methodological approach of the study begins with the literature review to develop the conceptual framework between ergonomics and sustainability. After the establishment of the study’s conceptual terms, a sampling area was selected in order to test the results of the research on the spatial organization of a detached preschool educational building in the context of school ergonomics. After studying the design guideline of the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and internationally studied and accepted parameters, important rooms and functions of a school structure were determined and categorized under assets such as sizes and capacity, temperature levels, luminance, and loudness. The comparison chart of 6 different functional spaces was made. These are administrative offices, classrooms, refectory, circulation areas, wet cores, and open-air spaces. The outcomes of the literature research were compared with the data obtained from the field of study through scientific output, and in-depth interview with the administrative staff. The findings were determined as the result of the examinations and comparisons made between the MoNE design guideline and the sampling area. The anthropometric measurements in the furniture and fittings of the building are planned and designed to support and improve the physiological conditions of both children and adult used areas. Spaces serving various functions in the building were constructed with appropriate and suitable architectural materials in accordance with the design guideline. The different functioned rooms have been designed to meet the natural – artificial lighting level, ventilation conditions, noise level, room temperature according to the criteria specified in the guidelines. Psychological levels resulting from the use of spaces within the building have shown that the detached building structure is designed with flexible design principles to support the comfort conditions, increase the level of satisfaction, and let people do their works without feeling tired. Organizations are programmed to be efficient for students and employees and revised and/or developed if necessary. To observe the usage safety and health conditions inside and outside the building, it has been determined that the required maximum physical security and health measures have been taken without causing a feeling of discomfort to the social and physical environment and are checked through periodic inspections. In this research, it has been studied on the importance of developing technologies for the human-environment intersections with ecological approach and the necessity to comply with the health and safety issues to ensure their continuity in accomplishing satisfaction, comfort and security in spaces of detached preschool buildings with the help of the applied science of ergonomics. As a result of the conceptual outline and sample area selection, the designing and implementation of the spatial organization in terms of ergonomic criteria bring about the physiological, psychological, and environmental comfort levels to the ideal range, increase productivity and quality, provide the opportunity to work in safe and healthy conditions by reducing accidents and risks, and help users to be satisfied with the workplace while reducing negative factors such as stress. The ergonomic factors in spatial organization of a preschool educational building have been listed and will serve as an example for educational buildings that are planned to be projected.

Keywords: Ergonomics; green ergonomics; preschool educational buildings; spatial organization.