Motion Sickness in Mixed-Reality Situational Awareness System

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Haamer R. E., Mikhailava N., Podliesnova V., Saremat R., Lusmägi T., Petrinec A., ...More

Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol.14, no.6, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app14062231
  • Journal Name: Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: mixed reality, motion sickness, MRSAS, MSQ, SSQ, user experience, virtual reality
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


This research focuses on enhancing the user experience within a Mixed-Reality Situational Awareness System (MRSAS). The study employed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) in order to gauge and quantify the user experience and to compare the effects of changes to the system. As the results of SSQ are very dependant on inherent motion sickness susceptibility, the Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (MSQ) was used to normalize the results. The experimental conditions were tested on a simulated setup which was also compared to its real-life counterpart. This simulated setup was adjusted to best match the conditions found in the real system by using post-processing effects. The test subjects in this research primarily consisted of 17–28 years old university students representing both male and female genders as well as a secondary set with a larger age range but predominantly male. In total, there were 41 unique test subjects in this study. The parameters that were analyzed in this study were the Field of View (FoV) of the headset, the effects of peripheral and general blurring, camera distortions, camera white balance and users adaptability to VR over time. All of the results are presented as the average of multiple user results and as scaled by user MSQ. The findings suggest that SSQ scores increase rapidly in the first 10–20 min of testing and level off at around 40–50 min. Repeated exposure to VR reduces MS buildup, and a FoV of 49–54 is ideal for a MRSAS setup. Additionally camera based effects like lens distortion and automatic white balance had negligible effests on MS. In this study a new MSQ based SSQ normalization technique was also developed and utilized for comparison. While the experiments in this research were primarily conducted with the goal of improving the physical Vegvisir system, the results themselves may be applicable for a broader array of VR/MR awareness systems and can help improve the UX of future applications.