In this study, vanadium-doped polyaniline and vanadium-doped polypyrrole were made by chemical synthesis method, with the addition of vanadium species used as oxidant for the first time in the literature. The prepared vanadium-doped conductive polymers were characterized spectroscopically, microscopically, and physically. In this context, vanadium-containing species both covalently doped to the structure of conductive polymers and adsorbed were determined by XPS and FT-IR analyzes. After characterizing the vanadium-doped conductive polymers prepared using chemical synthesis method, they were used as electrode material in asymmetric type supercapacitors. The highest areal capacitance was determined in VDPA including supercapacitor as 453 mF.cm−2 at a scanning speed of 5 mV.s−1. In long-cycle tests, it was determined that this system retained 70.9% of its initial capacity at the end of 1000 cycles. The data obtained in this study, which is the first to demonstrate the supercapacitor application of vanadium-doped conductive polymers, show that these material compositions have a high capacitance value and form an important basis for future studies.