CO2 Analyses With Model Based Regulatory Tools: VECTO Application For İstanbul Public Transportation Case

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Özener O., Özkan M., Gezer O., Zacharof N., Fontaras G.

15th INTERNATIONAL COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM, 17 - 19 September 2020, pp.177-182

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Page Numbers: pp.177-182
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The fossil fueled public transportation which circulates at inner city routes is an important focus area for

CO2 emission researches. As the number of vehicles in the fleets and the cumulative distances covered by

these fleets are considerably huge, the understanding of effects such as; cruising speeds, auxiliary loads,

operating planning and bus stop location choosing becomes more important on CO2 emissions. The

European Commission has already set a framework to regulate pollutant emissions and is underway to

monitor and regulate CO2 emissions with the use of Vehicle Energy Calculation Tool (VECTO). VECTO is

a vehicle simulation tool developed for the certification and monitoring of fuel consumption and CO2

emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. Trucks are already certified using VECTO since in 2019, while work is

on-going for extending the tool and methodology to buses and coaches. In this context, a route in one of the

biggest bus transport system- Istanbul Metrobus Rapid Bus Transport- System is modelled in VECTO

environment. The model is validated with real driving fuel consumption and CO2 emission results of the

buses. The obtained results showed difference in the range of 1-5%. Further analyses indicated that VECTO

could be used for assessing on-road CO2 emissions of conventional buses and assist urban transportation

planning and potentially for other regulatory purposes in Turkey as well.