Oral acute toxicity, influence on the gastrointestinal microbiota and in vivo anti-salmonellosis effect of Zizyphus lotus (L.) and Ruta chalepensis (L.) essential oils

Bekkar N. E. H., Meddah B., KESKİN B., Sonnet P.

Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports, vol.8, no.1, pp.13-26, 2021 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.30491/jabr.2020.229267.1217
  • Journal Name: Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.13-26
  • Keywords: Acute toxicity, Anti-salmonellosis, Essential oils, Gastrointestinal microbiota, Ruta Chalepensis (L.), Zizyphus Lotus (L.)
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021 The Author(s).Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Zizyphus lotus and Ruta chalepensis essential oils (EOs), the oral acute toxicity, influence on the gastrointestinal microbiota and the in vivo anti-salmonellosis effect. Materials and Methods: The EOs were isolated using the steam distillation process, and bioactive components were identified by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Oral acute toxicity, influence on the gastrointestinal flora composition and the anti-salmonellosis effect were elucidated using in vivo methods on experimental animals. Results: The GC-MS allowed us to identify 33 and 58 components in Z. lotus and R. chalepensis, respectively. Di-isooctyl phthalate (89.857%) was found to be the major compound identified in Z. lotus. The main compounds in R. chalepensis were 2-undecanone (26.528%) followed by 2-nonanone (13.404%). The LD50 of EOs was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Also, no negative influence to intestinal microbiota was detected. An important decrease in S. enterica ssp arizonae cells achieving a bactericidal effect was recorded in rats treated with the EOs of both plants at a dose of 400 mg/kg. In parallel, an important significant (P < 0.05) increase in lymphocytes number was observed for all tested animals. A decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino alanine transferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was observed. Furthermore, a reduced blood erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was recorded in treated animals. Conclusions: The Z. lotus and R. chalepensis act effectively as anti-salmonellosis agents, which support the use of these plants to cure gastrointestinal infections.