Jean Lurçat ve Tapestry Dokumalar Üzerindeki Etkisi Jean Lurçat and His Impact on Tapestry Wovens


Creative Commons License

KAPLANOĞLU L., ERZURUMLU JORAYEV Ö.

International Journal of Humanities and Art Researches, pp.173-198, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

Extended Abstract

Weaving, developed by people with the need for covering and protection, is a document that contains the social and cultural values of the period in which it was practiced in history. Observations and inspirations from the living environment led weavers to seek aesthetics and beauty, applications were decorated with colors and patterns, and pictorial expressions reflecting the lived period were developed. It is known that the oldest examples of pictorial weavings, which are known as tapestry, woven painting, tapestry, and tapestry, Goblen were woven in Egypt. In this tradition, which has been going on for centuries, in the Middle Ages, subjects such as mythological and religious scenes, war and hunting depictions were studied by famous painters of the period and applied as classical tapestry weavings in workshops.


The decrease in the importance given to handicrafts with the industrial revolution also decreased the demand for tapestry, and the subject gained importance again with the "Arts and Crafts" movement, which supported the unity of art and craft. Supporting the designs realized in cooperation with handicrafts and industry in Bahaus schools in Germany enabled the training of artisans/craftsmen. Re-emphasizing tapestry weavings, on the other hand, provided an environment for the application of tapestry works that go beyond the classical tapestry perception and take place in contemporary art, with the movement initiated by Jean Lurçat. Cosmos, Nature, living things have been the most studied subjects by Lurçat, and her works with detailed and strong accents have formed the artist's signature over time. The versatile artist, who has illustrations and lithography works, jewellery, mosaic and ceramic works, decor designs, poems as well as books written on tapestry, is one of the most important names in the contemporary form of tapestry. The works of the artist, who draw attention with his unique style, talent and multicolored style that he created and developed, have been exhibited in many national and international galleries and museums.


The innovations that Lurçat brought in tapestry technique and design were clearly seen in his works. One of the most important innovations brought by the artist in technique was the use of black and white numbered cardboard instead of the traditional colored cardboard design used in practice. In addition, while shading was made with thirty thousand different color tones in the application of classical tapestry weavings, the amount of color was reduced to twenty-five, thirty different tones, and color transitions were made with scanning lines by using larger loops. These technical innovations brought by the artist in practice carried the tapestry identity to a different dimension and made a real "Tapestry Renaissance".


Another important step taken by Lurçat is being a pioneer in the organization of the Lausanne Tapestry Biennial with Pierre Pauli. Lausanne has become the center of modern tapestry and has hosted artists from many parts of the world. An international platform has been created where artists can follow current practices. Lurçat, which was influential in the spread of tapestry production in France and all over the world in the twentieth century, has undoubtedly revolutionized the art of tapestry with its innovations in tapestry technique and design. There have been breaks in the tapestry tradition, which has been practiced with the cooperation of designers and weavers for centuries, and tapestry works of artists who both weaving and designing have emerged. As a result of the movement initiated by Lurçat, it also created an environment for the application of three-dimensional textile sculptures. Apart from Tapestry Art, Textile Art and the concept of Fiber Art, which has a wider scope and reflects the way of expression in the works of many of today's artists, was born.


When the reflection of the effects of the innovations brought by Lurçat to the present is observed, it is seen that thanks to the diversity of the materials used and the subjects covered in contemporary tapestry examples, and the free intervention of the artists during the application, very rich expression differences have been captured. In classical tapestry applications, while the warp threads are colored with weft threads so that they are not effective on the surface, and therefore illustration, it is noteworthy that in current examples, warp threads are also used as a means of expression and visual expressions are enriched. Today, the tapestry phenomenon is handled in the context of Fiber Art and positioned within Contemporary Art.


The method followed in this study; Giving a brief place to the history of tapestry is to examine Jean Lurçat's artistic approach, the innovations he brought, through literature records and practices. The article focuses on the influence of Jean Lurçat on tapestry weavings.


İnsanların örtünme ve korunma gereksinimiyle geliştirdikleri dokumacılık, tarihte uygulandığı dönemin sosyal ve kültürel değerlerini barındıran belge niteliğindedir. Yaşanılan çevreden yapılan gözlemler ve esinlenmeler dokumacıları, estetik ve güzellik arayışına yöneltmiş, uygulamalar renk ve desenle bezenmiş, yaşanılan dönemi yansıtan resimsel anlatımlar geliştirilmiştir. Tapestry, dokuma resim, duvar halısı, goblen gibi isimlerle anılan resimsel dokumaların en eski örneklerinin Mısır’da dokunduğu bilinmektedir. Yüzyıllardır devam eden bu gelenekte Orta Çağ’da, mitolojik ve dinî sahneler, savaş ve av betimlemeleri gibi konular dönemin ünlü ressamları tarafından çalışılmış ve atölyelerde klasik tapestry dokumalar olarak uygulanmıştır. Endüstri devrimiyle el sanatlarına verilen önemin azalması, tapestrylere olan talebi de azaltmış, sanat ve zanaat birlikteliğini destekleyen “Arts and Crafts” hareketi ile konu tekrar önem kazanmıştır. Almanya’da Bahaus okullarında, el sanatları ve endüstri işbirliği ile gerçekleştirilen tasarımların desteklenmesi, sanatçı zanaatkârların yetiştirilmesini sağlamıştır. Tapestry dokumalarının yeniden önemsenmesi ise Jean Lurçat’ın başlattığı hareket ile klasik tapestry algısının dışına çıkan ve çağdaş sanat içinde yer alan tapestry eserlerin uygulanmasına ortam sağlamıştır. Kozmos, doğa, canlılar Lurçat tarafından en çok işlenen konular olmuş, ayrıntılı ve güçlü vurgular taşıyan çalışmaları zaman içinde sanatçının imzasını oluşturmuştur. İllüstrasyon ve litografi çalışmaları, mücevher, mozaik ve seramik eserleri, dekor tasarımları, şiirlerinin yanı sıra tapestry üzerine yazılmış kitapları olan çok yönlü sanatçı, tapestrylerin çağdaş form kazanmasında en önemli isimlerden biridir. Özgün tarzı, yeteneği ve oluşturup geliştirdiği çok renkli üslubu ile dikkat çeken sanatçının eserleri birçok ulusal ve uluslararası galeri ve müzede sergilenmiştir. Lurçat’ın açtığı kapı, günümüz tapestry sanatını tetiklemiş, üç boyutlu tekstil heykellerin uygulanmasına uzanan yolu başlatmıştır. Tapestry Sanatındaki bu değişimler günümüz sanatçılarının bir kısmının ifade biçimi olarak kullandığı Lif Sanatı kavramını doğurmuştur. Yapılan bu çalışmada izlenilen yöntem; tapestry tarihine kısaca yer verilmesi, Jean Lurçat’ın sanatsal yaklaşımının, getirdiği yeniliklerin, literatür kayıtlarından ve uygulamalar üzerinden irdelenmesidir. Makale kapsamında, Jean Lurçat’ın tapestry dokumalar üzerindeki etkisine odaklanılmıştır.


Another important step taken by Lurçat is being a pioneer in the organization of the Lausanne Tapestry Biennial with Pierre Pauli. Lausanne has become the center of modern tapestry and has hosted artists from many parts of the world. An international platform has been created where artists can follow current practices. Lurçat, which was influential in the spread of tapestry production in France and all over the world in the twentieth century, has undoubtedly revolutionized the art of tapestry with its innovations in tapestry technique and design. There have been breaks in the tapestry tradition, which has been practiced with the cooperation of designers and weavers for centuries, and tapestry works of artists who both weaving and designing have emerged. As a result of the movement initiated by Lurçat, it also created an environment for the application of three-dimensional textile sculptures. Apart from Tapestry Art, Textile Art and the concept of Fiber Art, which has a wider scope and reflects the way of expression in the works of many of today's artists, was born.


When the reflection of the effects of the innovations brought by Lurçat to the present is observed, it is seen that thanks to the diversity of the materials used and the subjects covered in contemporary tapestry examples, and the free intervention of the artists during the application, very rich expression differences have been captured. In classical tapestry applications, while the warp threads are colored with weft threads so that they are not effective on the surface, and therefore illustration, it is noteworthy that in current examples, warp threads are also used as a means of expression and visual expressions are enriched. Today, the tapestry phenomenon is handled in the context of Fiber Art and positioned within Contemporary Art.


The method followed in this study; Giving a brief place to the history of tapestry is to examine Jean Lurçat's artistic approach, the innovations he brought, through literature records and practices. The article focuses on the influence of Jean Lurçat on tapestry weavings.