Code Index Modulation-Aided Spatial Media-Based Modulation System for Future Wireless Networks

Özden B. A., Aydin E., Cogen F.

IEEE SYSTEMS JOURNAL, vol.17, no.3, pp.3762-3770, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/jsyst.2022.3230775
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.3762-3770
  • Keywords: Code index modulation (CIM), index modulation (IM), media-based modulation (MBM), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, spatial modulation (SM)
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Future wireless networks, increment in mobile users, and Internet-connected devices have brought many needs, such as high data rate, low transmission energy, high error performance, and low latency. Index modulation-based systems have been considered as one of the strong candidates for meeting these demands and needs. In this article, a novel wireless communication system that combines code index modulation (CIM)-aided spatial modulation (SM) and media-based modulation (MBM) techniques, briefly called CIM-SMBM, is proposed for future wireless networks. In the CIM-SMBM system, source information bits are carried in transmitted symbols in addition to three indices: active antenna index selected by SM, indices of different channel states that vary depending on the propagation pattern with MBM, and selected spreading code indices determined by CIM. In order to further reduce the complexity of optimal maximum-likelihood (ML) and despreading-based ML detectors for the CIM-SMBM scheme, an enhanced low-complexity detector that can achieve near-ML error performance is proposed. The average bit error rate (ABER), throughput, energy efficiency, and complexity analyses of the CIM-SMBM system are derived over Rayleigh fading channels for the M-quadrature amplitude modulation technique. It has been observed that the ABER and simulation results are quite close to each other.