Mechanical stresses on the lung impose the major stimuli for developmental and compensatory lung growth and remodeling. We used computed tomography (CT) to noninvasively characterize the factors influencing lobar mechanical deformation in relation to posture, pneumonectomy (PNX), and exogenous proangiogenic factor supplementation. Post-PNX adult canines received weekly inhalations of nebulized nanoparticles loaded with recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) or control (empty nanoparticles) for 16 wk. Supine and prone CT were performed at two transpulmonary pressures pre- and post-PNX following treatment. Lobar air and tissue volumes, fractional tissue volume (FTV), specific compliance (Cs), mechanical strains, and shear distortion were quantified. From supine to prone. lobar volume and Cs increased while strain and shear magnitudes generally decreased. From pre- to postPNX, air volume increased less and FTV and Cs increased more in the left caudal (LCa) than in other lobes. FTV increased most in the dependent subpleural regions, and the portion of LCa lobe that expanded laterally wrapping around the mediastinum. Supine deformation was nonuniform pre- and post-PNX; strains and shear were most pronounced in LCa lobe and declined when prone. Despite nonuniform regional expansion and deformation, post-PNX lobar mechanics were well preserved compared with pre-PNX because of robust lung growth and remodeling establishing a new mechanical equilibrium. EPO treatment eliminated posture-dependent changes in FTV, accentuated the post-PNX increase in RN, and reduced FTV heterogeneity without altering absolute air or tissue volumes, consistent with improved microvascular blood volume distribution and modestly enhanced post-PNX alveolar microvascular reserves.