III. International Agricultural, Biological & Life Science Conference, Edirne, Turkey, 1 - 03 September 2021, pp.330
Einkorn (2n = 2x = 14) is a 14-chromosome wheat variety and is one of the most ancient crops of agriculture. In this study, physicochemical, technological and bioactive properties of immature and ripe einkorn wheat grains grown by local farmers in Kastamonu Devrakani region were investigated. The aim of this work was identify and theoretically justify the features of the chemical composition in immature einkorn grain. All the obtained products were harvested from the same field at different times. Immature einkorn wheat was harvested at the beginning of the milk ripening period, and the ripe wheat was harvested during the physiological maturity period. The harvested, dried, and cleaned einkorn grains were ground into whole wheat flour and the studies were made on whole wheat flour. Moisture content of both immature and mature whole einkorn flours was 13.0%. Thousand kernel weight was 23.25±1.06 g for immature einkorn wheat and 32.29±1.58 g for mature einkorn wheat. Hectoliter weight of immature einkorn wheat was 72.32±3.08 kg/hL and it was 79.11±4.09 kg/hL for mature einkorn wheat. The ash content of immature and mature whole einkorn wheat flour was determined as 2.53% and 2.04% on dry matter basis, respectively. While the protein content of immature whole einkorn flour was 10.04±0.18% the protein content of mature whole einkorn flour was 11.31±0.35% on dry matter basis. The sedimentation value was determined as 18 mL for immature whole einkorn flour and as 15 mL for mature whole einkorn flour. The falling number value was determined as 312±12 seconds for unripe whole einkorn flour and 341±13 seconds for mature whole einkorn flour. Total phenolic contents of immature and mature einkorn whole flours were 1165.24±13.24 and 947.86±11.63, mg GAE/kg dm respectively. As in total phenolic analysis results, immature einkorn flour has higher results than mature einkorn flour in antioxidant analysis; with 10.11±0.11 and 4.40±0.33 umol TE/g dm values for DPPH and 28.32±1.30 and 22.38±0.99 umol TE/g dm for Cuprac analysis.