in: Bioethanol Biochemistry and Biotechnological Advances, Ayerim Y.Hernandez Almanza,Nagamani Balagurusamy,Hector A.Ruiz,Cristobal N.Aguilar, Editor, Apple Academic Press, Burlingon, pp.401-419, 2022
Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex body consisting of heteropolymers such as lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose with high tolerance to biodegradation, which is abundant and cheap in nature, and significantly reduces CO2 emissions in the atmosphere when used in ethanol production. With the increase of global warming, the concept of lignocellulosic biorefinery has become a critical focus. There are many pre-treatment methods which have been developed to distrupt this structure even they are resistant to biodegradation. In the pre-treatment process, which is the most critical step in the production of valuable products from lignocellulosic wastes, a considerable amount of water and chemicals are consumed that affect the sustainability and economy of the biorefinery industry. This chapter aims to contribute to the development of new technology and to reduce costs during the production of high value-added products by examining all available pre-treatment technologies in terms of water, chemical, and energy consumption.