Manufacturing of emulsion type garlic paste: Characterization of rheological properties as affected by lecithin, guar gum, and olive oil using steady, dynamic, and three interval thixotropy tests

Kutlu G., Baslar M., Yilmaz M. T., Karaman S., Vardar U., Poyraz-Yildirim E., ...More

Journal of Food Process Engineering, vol.47, no.1, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jfpe.14522
  • Journal Name: Journal of Food Process Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: 3-ITT, dynamic rheology, garlic paste, optimization
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The objective of this work was to investigate the steady, dynamic mechanical properties, and 3 interval thixotropy test (3 ITT) characterization of emulsion type garlic paste prepared with different concentrations of lecithin, guar gum, and olive oil. A three factor and three level Box Behnken design of response surface methodology was used to specify the physicochemical, steady shear, viscoelastic and deformation and recovery properties (applying 3 ITT) of paste. Garlic paste samples showed non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior and Herchel–Bulkley model was fitted to the data satisfactorily (R2 > 0.85). Dry matter contents were in the range of 37.13%–41.14% depending on the processing variables. Dynamic mechanical spectrum showed that the garlic paste was weak gel having dominant viscous behavior compared to elastic behavior. Three interval thixrotropy test showed that the samples showed partial recovery after deformation due to the weak gel like character. Optimization showed that the maximum consistency (114.6 Pa sn) would be at 2.11 g lecithin, 0.11 g guar gum and 14.96 mL olive oil while the minimum value (49.16 Pa sn) would be at 1.02 g lecithin, 0.11 g guar gum, and 5.81 mL olive oil. Overall, the findings of this investigation revealed that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of garlic paste can be significantly influenced by the concentrations of lecithin, guar gum, and olive oil. It is crucial to carefully select the appropriate concentration levels to achieve the desired quality of garlic paste. Practical applications: Garlic is one the most popular vegetables consumed by the people due to its characteristic taste and aroma. Because of its functional properties, garlic is also used as an additive for food formulation. In this study, garlic is used for the production of garlic paste which could be used for food formulations as a taste enhancer or salad aromatizer. Accurate and dependable rheological data play a crucial role in designing flow processes, assessing the deformation and recovery rates of substances during various engineering operations and preparation of new food formulations. In this context, we developed a predictive model by response surface methodology which estimates physico-chemical and rheological properties of garlic paste samples. Therefore, this study holds significant importance in terms of estimating the physicochemical and rheological properties of garlic paste for food manufacturers.