This paper focuses on thermal post-buckling analysis of functionally graded beams with temperature dependent physical properties by using the total Lagrangian Timoshenko beam element approximation. Material properties of the beam change in the thickness direction according to a power-law function. The beam is clamped at both ends. In the case of beams with immovable ends, temperature rise causes compressible forces and therefore buckling and post-buckling phenomena occurs. It is known that post-buckling problems are geometrically nonlinear problems. Also, the material properties (Young's modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, yield stress) are temperature dependent: That is the coefficients of the governing equations are not constant in this study. This situation suggests the physical nonlinearity of the problem. Hence, the considered problem is both geometrically and physically nonlinear. The considered highly non-linear problem is solved considering full geometric non-linearity by using incremental displacement-based finite element method in conjunction with Newton-Raphson iteration method. In this study, the differences between temperature dependent and independent physical properties are investigated for functionally graded beams in detail in post-buckling case. With the effects of material gradient property and thermal load, the relationships between deflections, critical buckling temperature and maximum stresses of the beams are illustrated in detail in post-buckling case.