Hydrothermal liquefaction process of Ammi visnaga and a new approach for recycling of the waste process water: cultivation of algae and fungi

DURAK H., Genel S., Demirer Durak E., ÖZÇİMEN D., Kocer A. T.

BIOMASS CONVERSION AND BIOREFINERY, vol.14, no.5, pp.7149-7165, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13399-022-03221-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.7149-7165
  • Keywords: Hydrothermal liquefaction, Bio-oil, Catalyst, Algae, Fungi, CHLORELLA-MINUTISSIMA, BIOMASS, CONVERSION, BIODIESEL, YIELD, FE
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, biomass was tried to be liquefied by catalytic hydrothermal process. In addition, the effects of waste process water on growth of beneficial-pathogenic fungi and algae were investigated. Ammi visnaga as biomass source; Cu, W, and Fe metal powders as catalysts; Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma vixens, and Verticillium dahliae as fungus species; and Chlorella minutissima as algae were used. In trials, 250, 275, 300, and 325 degrees C temperatures and 0, 15, 30, and 45 min parameters were determined. GC-MS, TOC, XRD, and elemental analysis methods were used for characterization. The optimum temperatures for light bio-oil and heavy bio-oil were 300 degrees C and 325 degrees C, respectively. The highest HHV value was obtained as 30.30 Mj/kg in the presence of Fe catalyst. It was determined that waste process waters support beneficial fungus and algae growth and suppress pathogen growth.