Modifying diesel fuel with nanoparticles of zinc oxide to investigate its influences on engine behaviors

Rajak U., Nageswara Reddy V., Ağbulut Ü., Sarıdemir S., Afzal A., Nath Verma T.

Fuel, vol.345, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 345
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fuel.2023.128196
  • Journal Name: Fuel
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Diesel engine, Diesel-RK model, Engine performance, Nanofuels, Nanoparticles
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


In this paper, we used experimental and numerical methods to explore the effects of a diesel fuel blend containing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles at three different concentrations (0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.1%) on the combustion, injection, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running at constant speeds of 2000 rpm, 2250 rpm, 2500 rpm, 2750 rpm, and 3000 rpm, with the engine operating at full load. The results of the experiments demonstrate that DF + 0.1% ZnO increases BTE by 11.7% at 2500 rpm, while decreasing SFC by 1.67%, exhaust gas temperature by 11.4%, and NOx emissions by 10.67%. The advanced injection time and load were kept same, but a 2.3% rise in cylinder pressure was achieved when ZnO nano additions to diesel fuel were used. Moreover, CO2 emissions were reduced by 7.6% compared to 2500 rpm. In conclusion, the results prove that the nanoparticle-added test fuels improve engine efficiency, and combustion yield by reducing exhaust pollutants, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.