The effects of machining parameters on the fatigue strength of fine-machined threaded specimens were investigated by comparing with the endurance limits of circumferentially notched specimens with the same profile. A four-point rotary bending fatigue test machine was used to obtain constant bending moment and pure alternating stress along the thread. All specimens were machined from SAE 4340 steel, the typical material used for deep well oil drilling pipes. Notched specimens were fine-machined according to ASTM standards, while the threaded specimens were machined under the optimized cutting conditions, which maximize tool life and geometric precision, as well as under selected modified conditions. Endurance limits of all specimens after 2 x 10(6) cycles were experimentally determined and S-N curves were plotted for 90% reliability for all experiments. The effects of cutting force, radial feed, tool wear, and two thread cutting methods on the fatigue strengths of the threaded specimens were determined. Experimental results show that the fatigue strengths of threaded specimens lie within a large range, depending on machining conditions, as compared to circumferentially notched specimens. The most influential factors on the fatigue strength of threaded specimens are tool wear and cutting velocity, while the effects of cutting method and radial feed are less significant. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.