Tarhana, a fermented and dried yoghurt-cereal mixture, is an important component of the daily diet in Turkey. A total of 31 commercial Tarhana samples were analyzed microbiologically and for mycotoxins. The pH which was determined as well ranged from 3.8 to 4.9. Total counts of aerobic-mesophilic bacteria were 1.5 x 10(2)-7.1x 10(6) cfu/g. Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphyococcus aureus have not been found in any sample. Eleven out of 31 samples contained lactic acid bacteria at concentrations between 18 and 4.1x 10(4) cfu/g. Four Tarhana samples (12.9%) contained aflatoxin B-1.