INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, vol.44, no.41, pp.23348-23359, 2019 (SCI-Expanded)
Fuel cell (FC) technology is showing excellent promise for many applications ranging from portable devices to vehicular systems. A stand-alone FC may not always satisfy the fast and transient load demands of a vehicular power system. As a result, FC units are usually hybridized with supplementary sources to meet the total power demand of the vehicle. In this paper, the energy demands of a light vehicle (a passenger cart) is developed using a hybrid power supply system involving a photovoltaic (PV) panel, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery based energy storage system (ESS). In addition, the details of the physical construction of the modified hybrid cart are given. The most critical feature of an energy management strategy for a multiple-source based hybrid vehicle is the sharing of fast and transient load demands among the available power sources. For this purpose, a 300-s drive cycle is created in this paper to test the effectiveness of the load sharing strategy between FC, battery pack and PV panel. It is found that PEMFC dominates slow and moderate dynamic behaviors of the vehicle, while fast response of the battery group governs the rapid dynamic behaviors. The results also show that the integrating PV panel contributes noticeably to the dynamic behaviors of the system. Furthermore, a control-oriented simulation model for a PEMFC unit is verified with experimental data to test the success of the proposed technique. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.