Evaluation of Fresh Properties and Rheological Behavior of lime-based Grouts with Cappadocia Waste Earth


BAYRAM M., OKTAY D., YÜZER N.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15583058.2022.2089071
  • Journal Name: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Scopus, Aerospace Database, Art Source, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Index Islamicus, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Cappadocia waste earth, grout, natural hydraulic lime, rheology, thixotropy, THIXOTROPIC BEHAVIOR, ORTAHISAR CASTLE, STONE MASONRY, FLY-ASH, TEMPERATURE, INJECTION, TIME, CONSOLIDATION, DESIGN, SUPERPLASTICIZER

Abstract

Cappadocia Region (World Heritage Site registered by UNESCO) carries thousands of rock-cut structures, masonries and fairy chimneys, which have been used in every aspect of daily life. Damages occurred during their working life, and restoration with inappropriate materials are threatened these structures. Moreover, an enormous amount of waste material is excavated throughout the carving process, passing approximately 10 million cubic meters per annum, creating pollution in the region, and not being used efficiently. This study aims to use Cappadocia waste earth (CWE) in the grout for consolidation and strengthening rock-cut structures, masonries and fairy chimneys located in Cappadocia region. The utilization of this waste earth in the grout prevents the destruction of these valuable structures and provides a solution to a critical environmental problem. The experiments were conducted employing by 30%, 40%, and 50 wt% of Cappadocia waste earth with natural hydraulic lime in the existence of chemical admixtures. The influence of ambient temperatures (5 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) and time-dependent behavior on the rheological performance of grouts were investigated. The findings revealed that dosages of Cappadocia waste earth, different environmental temperatures, and constant shearing (time-dependent) have critical roles in determining the optimum requirements for injection.