Examining the role of class imbalance handling strategies in predicting earthquake-induced landslide-prone regions

Pham Q. B., Ekmekcioğlu Ö., Ali S. A., KOÇ K., Parvin F.

Applied Soft Computing, vol.143, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 143
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.asoc.2023.110429
  • Journal Name: Applied Soft Computing
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Applied Science & Technology Source, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Class imbalance, Earthquake, Explainable artificial intelligence, Landslide, Machine learning, SHAP
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study was undertaken to propose a comprehensive prediction scheme containing the hybrid use of class imbalance handling strategies and machine learning methods to assess the earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility for the North Sikkim region. It is worth to mention that taking the class imbalance handling techniques into account is essential to mimic real-world conditions. To tackle this issue, this research for the first time focused on the comprehensive evaluation of nine scenarios comprising four oversampling, four undersampling, and a RAW data analysis techniques. The predictions were conducted with the stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) algorithm. Analysis results depicted that the SVM-SMOTE-SGB outperformed its counterparts (with an AUROC of 0.9878), followed by the models subjected to the pre-processing with BL-SMOTE (AUROC: 0.9876) and RUS (AUROC: 0.9859), respectively. Also, the major drawback of the black-box models, i.e., lack of interpretability, was overcome with a game-theoretical SHapley Additive explanation (SHAP) analysis. The SHAP application with respect to the best-performed model ensured the importance of distance to road, distance to stream, and elevation in the identification of earthquake-induced landslide prone regions.