Deformation of breakwater armoured artificial units under cyclic loading

Cihan K., YÜKSEL Y.

APPLIED OCEAN RESEARCH, vol.42, pp.79-86, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.apor.2013.05.002
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.79-86
  • Keywords: Artificial units, Cyclic loading, FEM, Breakwater, RUBBLE-MOUND BREAKWATERS
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Rubble mound breakwaters usually consist of armour, filter and core layers. The units used in the armour layer are natural rock or concrete. Although natural rock is usually preferred, it is not always possible to apply it. There are some advantages to using concrete units: they have a high stability coefficient under wave attack, and they are easily produced at work sites. Tetrapod and cube blocks are widely used in breakwaters as armour units.