Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Exergy Analysis of Coal- and Natural Gas-Based Ammonia Production

ÇETİNKAYA A. Y., Bilgili L., KUZU S. L., Yılmaz F.

Chemical Engineering and Technology, vol.46, no.11, pp.2431-2441, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ceat.202300156
  • Journal Name: Chemical Engineering and Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.2431-2441
  • Keywords: Ammonia production, Coal-based ammonia production, Exergy analysis, Life cycle assessment, Natural gas-based ammonia production
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis of ammonia production is presented, focusing on the comparison between natural gas-based and coal-based processes. Ammonia production is associated with high energy consumption and significant carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The objective of this research is to identify key processes and parameters within the ammonia synthesis industry and provide recommendations for cleaner and more sustainable development. Exergy analysis is performed to assess the efficiency of ammonia production technologies and determine optimal operating conditions. Natural gas-based ammonia production has lower environmental impacts compared to coal-based production in most categories, except for ionizing radiation. Natural gas, being a cleaner-burning fossil fuel, produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants. However, it is essential to address the issue of ionizing radiation in natural gas-based processes. The potential for more efficient technologies and the importance of removing sulfur and other impurities during the production process to optimize catalyst performance are highlighted.