Determination of Potential Second-Tier Cities in Turkey and Performance Analysis

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Gezer B., Gezici Korten E. F.

ERSA 59th Congress, Lyon, France, 27 - 30 August 2019, pp.144-145

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: Lyon
  • Country: France
  • Page Numbers: pp.144-145
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes



Prof. Dr. Ferhan Gezici Korten, İstanbul Technical University

Research Assistant Büşra Gezer, Yıldız Technical University

Roberts (2014) who stated that the ‘concept of second-tier city’ was popularized by Rondinelli (1982) in the 1980s, describes the second-tier cities as cities with populations ranging from several hundred thousand to several million and expressing the second level of urban hierarchy. Apart from these and similar definitions made over population size for the second-tier cities, it has been observed that different approaches have come to the fore in the definition of second-tier cities. A group of researchers who point out that the second-tier cities cannot be defined only through 'population size' and the 'functional approach' is important in defining these cities, they suggest that the second-tier cities should be define according to their roles in urban system, their functions and socio-economic relations between them and other cities. Second-tier cities are also defined according to their performances in national demographic and economic growth’ and ‘development of social and institutional structure. Parkinson et al. (2015) stated that although the second-tier cities could act less on the global scale, they are a source of dynamism for the regions outside the capital and made significant contributions to national growth. In light of developed and developing countries literature about 'second-tier city' concept and taking into account the contribution of the second-tier cities to national growth Turkey's potential second-tier cities will be determined among 81 cities depending on the performance changes in 'demographic and economic growth' and 'social, physical and institutional development' in this study. For this aim, an inductive method is adopted which depends on the respectively forming research problem, research questions and hypotheses and testing hypothesis with two-step cluster analysis. In cluster analysis, the number of cluster is defined as '8'. Thus Turkey's 81 cities are divided into eight separate cluster for each year according to the proximity of performance to each other and related cluster centers in the above-mentioned categories. The cluster analysis which will allow the determination of Turkey's potential second-tier cities through performance change depends will conduct between 2007 and 2017. Afterwards, the performance changes of the second-tier cities will be examined in two different periods in the same period. The first period subject to the examination of performance change is the crisis period, the second is the post-crisis period. In addition, in the cluster analysis both for the determination of second-tier cities and for the examination of their performance changes, year of 2010 when Turkey's economy was in welfare and balance will be chosen base year. The reason for this is to avoid misleading effects of crisis years on results. Thus, performance changes of the cities will be examined by going to the years after base year and by going to the previous years. After identification of Turkey's potential second-tier cities and explanation of potential changes in their performance, growth and development dynamics of the cities will be investigated. Finally, in the conclusion section of study, the policies for second-tier cities in the literature will be examined together with the prominent policies within the scope of this study.