Development and validation of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 200 Antarctica samples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

Ercan M. S. F., Ayyıldız M. F., Yazıcı E., Metin B., Chormey D. S., Koçoğlu E. S., ...More

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.194, no.5, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 194 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-022-09991-w
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Microextraction, Matrix matching calibration, Antarctica, IONIC LIQUIDS, POTTER COVE, PAHS, EXTRACTION, SEDIMENTS, DLLME
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Antarctica has seen an increase in scientific research and tourism, and anthropogenic activities such as incineration of waste products and fuel combustion for energy and transportation are potential contamination sources to the ecosystem. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common products of incomplete combustion of organic compounds and could be among accumulating contaminants in Antarctica. Thus, this study sought to develop a sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Parameters that were relevant to the extraction method were carefully optimized and validated using aqueous standard solutions. The optimum method recorded detection limits in the range of 0.20-6.1 mu g/L for the analytes. Spike recovery experiments were carried out on artificial seawater, rock-soil, and moss samples, using matrix matching calibration to mitigate effects of the sample matrices. The samples analyzed included seawater, lake, rock-soil, moss, seaweed, and feces samples all collected from the Horseshoe and Faure Islands in Antarctica. The percent recovery results obtained for the samples spiked at different concentrations ranged between 86 and 115%.