Sound Velocity Determination with Empirical Formulas & Bar Check

Alkan R. M. , Kalkan Y., Aykut N. O.

Shaping the Change, XXIII FIG Congress, Hamburg, Germany, 8 - 13 October 2006, pp.1-14

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • City: Hamburg
  • Country: Germany
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-14


The acoustic sounding method is densely used in hydrographic studies. For depth

measurement, elapsed time of an acoustic pulse which travels to the bottom and return again

is measured by acoustic depth measurement systems. If the velocity of sound propagation in the

water column is known, the depth is computed by using the time-velocity equation. On the

other hand, the travel time of the acoustic pulse depends on the sound velocity in the water

column which varies with the medium’s elasticity and density. Thus, true sound velocity in

water should be determined as accurately as possible to obtain depth accurately. There are

several different instrument and methods to determine the sound velocity. The aim of this

study is to estimate velocity of sound in water with different empirical formulae as well

indirectly by bar check calibration to verify the results. For this purpose, some field studies

were performed in the Halic and Istanbul Strait. The methodologies of these procedures are

explained in detail in the paper.