In this research, the effects of zeolite, coal bottom ash and fly ash as Portland cement replacement materials on the properties of cement are investigated through three different combinations of tests. These materials are substituted for Portland cement in different proportions, and physical properties such as setting time, volume expansion, compressive strength and water consistency of the mortar are determined. Then, these physical properties are compared with those of PC 42.5. The results showed that replacement materials have some effects on the mechanical properties of the cement. The inclusion of zeolite up to the level of 15% resulted in an increase in compressive strength at early ages, but resulted in a decrease in compressive strength when used in combination with fly ash. Also, setting time was decreased when zeolite was substituted. The results obtained were compared with Turkish Standards (TS), and it was found that they are above the minimum requirements. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.