In orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), closely spaced multiple subcarriers are assigned to different users for parallel signal transmission. An interleaved subcarrier-assignment scheme is preferred because it provides maximum frequency diversity and increases the capacity in frequency-selective fading channels. The subcarriers are overlapping, but orthogonal to each other such that there is no intercarrier interference (ICI). Carrier-frequency offsets (CFOs) between the transmitter and the receiver destroy the orthogonality and introduces ICI, resulting in multiple-access interference. This paper exploits the inner structure of the signals for CFO estimation in the uplink of interleaved OFDMA systems. A new uplink signal model is presented, and an estimation algorithm based on the signal structure is proposed for estimating the CFOs of all users using only one OFDMA block. Diversity schemes are also presented to improve the estimation performance. Simulation results illustrate the high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.