Psychometric Properties of the General Belongingness Scale in Turkish Youth

Satici S. A., Tekin E. G.

CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY, vol.35, no.4, pp.625-631, 2016 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12144-015-9329-7
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.625-631
  • Keywords: Belongingness, Social connectedness, Social safeness, Subjective happiness, Life satisfaction, Big five, Scale adaptation, Turkish youth, PERSONALITY, NEED, SATISFACTION, RELIABILITY, LONELINESS
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of Turkish version of the General Belongingness Scale (GBS; Malone et al. in Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3): 311-316, 2012). The adaptation process was carried out with four independent studies, examining the data from two Turkish universities. In study 1, linguistic equivalence of the scale was examined. In study 2, after ensuring the linguistic equivalence, construct, convergent and concurrent validity of the GBS were analyzed. In study 3, predictive validity of the GBS was examined in order to provide additional evidence for the construct validity of the scale. In study 4, the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the GBS were investigated. The results of this study revealed that both two-factor structure (Acceptance/Inclusion and Rejection/Exclusion) and one-factor structure of the GBS were acceptable. The GBS demonstrated positive relations with social connectedness, social safeness, life satisfaction and subjective happiness while negative relations with loneliness. Results also revealed that extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, life satisfaction and subjective happiness were all positive predictors of the GBS. Finally, the results of the study indicated high levels of internal consistency and test retest reliability. These findings suggest that The GBS is suitable for use among Turkish youth. Suggestions for future research and for the use of the GBS were offered.