Qualification and Quantification of Reserves in Power Systems Under High Wind Generation Penetration Considering Demand Response

PATERAKIS N. G., Erdinc O., Bakirtzis A. G., CATALAO J. P. S.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, vol.6, no.1, pp.88-103, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


The presence of high levels of renewable energy resources (RES) and especially wind power production poses technical and economic challenges to system operators, which under this fact have to procure more ancillary services (AS) through various balancing mechanisms, in order to maintain the generation-consumption balance and to guarantee the security of the grid. Traditionally, these critical services had been procured only from the generation side, yet the current perception has begun to recognize the demand side as an important asset that can improve the reliability of a power system, offering notable advantages. In this study, a two-stage stochastic programming model, representing the day-ahead market clearing procedure on an hourly basis and the actual minute-to-minute operation of the power system, is developed comprising different services that specifically address various disturbance sources of the normal operation of a power system, namely intra-hour load variation, intra-hour wind variation, as well as generating unit and transmission line outages.