Formulation of dark chocolate as a carrier to deliver eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids: Effects on product quality


TOKER Ö. S. , Konar N., Palabiyik I., Pirouzian H. R. , Oba S., POLAT D. G. , ...More

FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.254, pp.224-231, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 254
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.019
  • Journal Name: FOOD CHEMISTRY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.224-231
  • Keywords: Chocolate, EPA, DHA, Omega-3, Quality, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, BULK SWEETENERS, FUNCTIONAL FOOD, PARTICLE-SIZE, OMEGA-3-FATTY-ACIDS, MILK, CONSUMPTION, IMPACT

Abstract

In this study, dark chocolate enriched with EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) was developed using various forms and origins. Quality characteristics such as physical, thermo-gravimetric, rheological, textural and sensory properties of chocolates were investigated. The highest EPA/DHA stability was determined in samples prepared by free-flowing powder and microencapsulated forms of omega-3 fatty acids (FA). The L* and C* values varied from 32.16-33.37 and 7.45-8.09, respectively for the all samples. Hardness values ranged between 6422 and 8367 N and the use of EPA/DHA in the triglyceride form caused softer chocolate whereas control sample was the hardest sample. Melting and rheological properties were not significantly affected by the studied EPA/DHA sources (P < 0.05). Microencapsulated EPA/DHA added chocolate was the most preferred source whereas sample with algae oil showed the lowest acceptability. According to the results, dark chocolate can be used for delivering omega-3 FA by considering their origin and physical form.