This study aimed to explore the safe and efficient top-coal caving mining under thin topsoil of shallow coal seam (SCS) and realize the optimization of hydraulic support. Numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were used to reveal the stress distribution of the topsoil, the structure characteristics of the main roof blocks, and the development of the roof subsidence convergence. Step subsidence of the initial fractured main roof after sliding destabilization frequently existed, which seriously threatened the safety of the hydraulic supports. Hence, a mechanical model of the main roof blocks, where the topsoil thickness was less than the minimum height of the unloading arch, was established, and the mechanical criterion of the stability was achieved. The working resistance of the hydraulic support was calculated, and the reasonable type was optimized so as to avoid crushing accident. Findings of the present analysis indicated that the hydraulic support optimization was mainly affected by fractured main roof blocks during the first weighting. According to the block stability mechanical model based on Mohr-Coulomb criterion, the required working resistance and the supporting intensity were determined as 4899 kN and 0.58 MPa, respectively. The ZZF5200/19/32S low-position top-coal caving hydraulic support was selected for the studied mine and support-surrounding rock stability control of thin-topsoil SCS could be achieved without crushing accident.