Smart Household Operation Considering Bi-Directional EV and ESS Utilization by Real-Time Pricing-Based DR

Erdinc O. , PATERAKIS N. G. , MENDES T. D. P. , Bakirtzis A. G. , CATALAO J. P. S.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, vol.6, no.3, pp.1281-1291, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 6 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tsg.2014.2352650
  • Page Numbers: pp.1281-1291


As the smart grid solutions enable active consumer participation, demand response (DR) strategies have drawn much interest in the literature recently, especially for residential areas. As a new type of consumer load in the electric power system, electric vehicles (EVs) also provide different opportunities, including the capability of utilizing EVs as a storage unit via vehicle-to-home (V2H) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) options instead of peak power procurement from the grid. In this paper, as the main contribution to the literature, a collaborative evaluation of dynamic-pricing and peak power limiting-based DR strategies with a bi-directional utilization possibility for EV and energy storage system (ESS) is realized. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) framework-based modeling of a home energy management (HEM) structure is provided for this purpose. A distributed small-scale renewable energy generation system, the V2H and V2G capabilities of an EV together with two-way energy trading of ESS, and different DR strategies are all combined in a single HEM system for the first time in the literature. The impacts of different EV owner consumer preferences together with the availability of ESS and two-way energy trading capabilities on the reduction of total electricity prices are examined with case studies.