Evaluation of the GPS Precise Point Positioning technique during the 21 July 2017 Kos-Bodrum (East Aegean Sea) Mw 6.6 earthquake


ARABIAN JOURNAL OF GEOSCIENCES, vol.11, no.24, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 24
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12517-018-4140-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: GPS, Static PPP, Kinematic PPP, Kos-Bodrum earthquake, Displacement, MARMARA REGION, DEFORMATION, TURKEY, WAVE, CONSTRAINTS
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Precise Point Positioning (PPP) algorithms have been widely used in the Global Positioning System (GPS)-based applications. A PPP technique with a single receiver provides effective solutions where accurate absolute positioning is required. This paper provides the performance assessment of GPS PPP for detecting the displacements caused by an earthquake. For this purpose, the earthquake that occurred on 21 July 2017 at Kos-Bodrum with the impact of Mw 6.6 was investigated by analyzing the data of the permanent GPS stations located around the related region with the PPP technique. The location distances of these GPS stations range from 10 to 89km to the epicenter of this earthquake. GPS data provided from seven permanent stations from the Continuously Operating Reference Stations-Turkey (CORS-TR) and local Bodrum CORS networks were processed to determine the co-seismic displacements during the earthquake. The data of these stations for days of year (DOYs) 200, 201, 202, and 203 were analyzed with post-process static PPP and kinematic PPP methods. GIPSY-OASIS II v6.4 was used for processing the data and all of the solutions were performed in the ITRF2008 reference frame. Two strategies were followed on the post-process static solutions. In the first strategy, 4-day data with 24-h observations were separately analyzed day by day. In the second strategy, the 24-h data were divided into 3-h duration, which is the minimum duration for optimum PPP solutions, and then the analyses were performed. When the displacements between DOYs 200 and 203 are considered in the 24-h data analysis, significant displacements have been observed through northwest direction in the northern stations whereas MUG1 is excluded. Moreover, there is significant displacement through the southeast direction in the station DATC located in the south of the epicenter. When the 3-h solutions are examined, displacements, especially on n and e directions, are observed starting from the solutions, which include Mw 6.6 earthquake. According to the kinematic PPP solutions, the effects of the Mw 6.6 earthquake can be seen clearly in the stations DATC, ORTA, TRKB, and YALI. Considering all outcomes, the PPP technique with both static and kinematic solutions provides effective results for detecting the displacements during the earthquake.