Numerical damage assessment of Haghia Sophia bell tower by nonlinear FE modeling

Bayraktar A., Sahin A., Ozcan D. M., Yildirim F.

APPLIED MATHEMATICAL MODELLING, vol.34, no.1, pp.92-121, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.apm.2009.03.033
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.92-121
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


In the present paper, the numerical damage assessment of the masonry bell tower called "Haghia Sophia" in Trabzon, Turkey is performed by nonlinear 30 finite element modeling. The behavior of bell tower is determined under several different conditions: nonlinear static analysis containing dead and wind loads and nonlinear seismic analysis. In addition to, an assessment of the tower's stability with respect to the tilt of the tower is carried out by means of a nonlinear analysis. In the nonlinear dynamic analysis, the east-west component of 1992 Erzincan earthquake is used. Cracking and crushing of the masonry have been taken into account, as well as the influence of material nonlinearity. The numerical analysis has given a valuable picture of possible damage evolution, providing useful hints for the prosecution of structural monitoring. The displacement and stress fields, as well as the distribution of cracking have been calculated and compared to the actual distribution of fractures in the tower. It is seen from the numerical results that there is a good agreement with present damages of the bell tower. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.