Cold-Pressed Okra Seed Oil Byproduct as an Ingredient for Muffins to Decrease Glycemic Index, Maillard Reaction, and Oxidation

Akçiçek A., Özgölet M., Tekin-Cakmak Z. H., Karasu S., Duran E., Sağdıç O.

ACS OMEGA, vol.9, no.7, pp.7491-7501, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsomega.3c06027
  • Journal Name: ACS OMEGA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.7491-7501
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding cold-pressed okra seed oil byproduct (OSB) to the muffin formulation, as a partial substitute for wheat flour, on the nutritional, physicochemical, rheological, textural, and sensory properties of muffins. The carbohydrate, protein, oil, moisture, and ash contents of OSB were 44.96, 32.34, 10.21, 7.51, and, 4.98%, respectively, indicating that OSB was rich in protein and carbohydrate. All muffin samples showed a shear thinning behavior, indicating that the viscosity of all samples decreased with increasing shear rate. The frequency sweep test showed that all samples showed viscoelastic solid-like structure [G′ (storage modulus)> G″ (loss modulus)]. The K′ values (between 66.45 and 139.14) were higher than the K″ values (between 36.62 and 80.42) for all samples. The result was another indication of the viscoelastic solid characteristic of the samples. In our study, it was found that the fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan index decreased with increasing amount of OSB, indicating that OSB addition led to a decrease in the amount of fluorescent Maillard reaction (MR) products. The fortified muffins with more than 10% OSB had a reduced estimated glycemic index (GI) significantly in comparison with control muffin samples (p < 0.05). The induction period (IP) values of the muffin samples containing OSB (between 11:57 and 15:15 h/min) were higher than the IP value of the control sample (10:50 h/min), indicating that OSB improved the oxidative stability of the muffin samples. The addition of OSB has shown no negative effect on sensory attributes considering texture, mouth fell, odor, and taste. This study suggested that the addition of OSB in muffins could improve rheological properties and oxidative stability and decrease GI and the amount of MR products without negative impact on sensory properties.