An Analysis of the 4th and 8th Grade Mathematics Textbooks by TIMSS Cognitive Domains

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Taşpınar Şener Z., Bulut A. S.

Gazi Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (. Ahi Evran Üniv. Kırşehir Eğt. Fak. Derg.), vol.23, pp.46-83, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


The aim of this study is to analyze questions in the fourth and eighth grade textbooks by cognitive areas addressed within the framework of the TIMSS 2019 program. The research was performed with document analysis, one of the qualitative research methods. The questions in textbooks were classified independently considering the TIMSS 2019 cognitive domains. It was determined 42% was at the level of knowing, 46% was at the level of practice and 11% was at the level of reasoning in the fourth grade mathematics textbook. Besides, 49% of the questions in the mathematics textbook at the eighth grade level are at the level of knowing, 48% at the application level and 3% at the reasoning level. When these rates and the distribution of questions in the TIMSS exam by cognitive domains are compared, the ratio of questions at the knowledge and application level in the textbooks of both grade levels is higher than the TIMSS research; it was concluded that there were fewer questions at the reasoning level. As a result, it was detected at both grade levels, textbooks focused on cognitive skills of knowing and application, and there were very few questions about reasoning that require high-level cognitive skills.