At the stage of designing a special machine tool, it is necessary to analyze many variants of structural solutions of frames and load-bearing systems and to choose the best solution in terms of dynamic properties, in particular considering its resistance to chatter. For this reason, it is preferred to adopt a low-dimensional calculation model, which allows the user to reduce the necessary calculation time while maintaining a high accuracy. The paper presents the methodology of modeling the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and receptance functions of machine tool steel welded frames filled with strongly heterogenous polymer concrete, using low-dimensional models developed by the rigid finite elements method (RigFEM). In the presented study, a RigFEM model of a simple steel beam filled with polymer concrete and a frame composed of such beams were built. Then, the dynamic properties obtained on the basis of the developed RigFEM models were compared with the experimental results and the 1D and 3D finite element models (FEM) in terms of accuracy and dimensionality. As a result of the experimental verification, the full structural compliance of the RigFEM models (for beam and frame) was obtained, which was manifested by the agreement of the mode shapes. Additionally, experimental verification showed a high accuracy of the RigFEM models, obtaining for the beam model a relative error for natural frequencies of less than 4% and on average 2.2%, and for the frame model at a level not exceeding 11% and on average 5.5%. Comparing the RigFEM and FEM models, it was found that the RigFEM models have a slightly worse accuracy, with a dimensionality significantly reduced by 95% for the beam and 99.8% for the frame.