Estimation and dispersion analysis of shipping emissions in Bandirma Port, Turkey


ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY, vol.23, no.7, pp.10288-10308, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10668-020-01057-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, PASCAL, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CAB Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, Index Islamicus, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.10288-10308
  • Keywords: Ship exhaust emissions, Bandirma Port, Exhaust emission dispersion, AERMOD, Environmental cost, TRAFFIC EXHAUST EMISSIONS, AIR-QUALITY, SOCIAL COST, PARTICULATE MATTER, GAS EMISSIONS, SHIPS, IMPACT, CRUISE, INVENTORY, SEA
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Ships emit numerous of pollutants from their stacks. Those emissions have substantial impact on urban areas since they are located on the proximity of residential and commercial areas. Estimation of these emissions, their effects, and their health impact remains crucial for environmental planning. This study was conducted in Bandirma, where is a district with immense port activity. First, we calculated the emissions, originated from ships, at berth. PM10, NOx, SO2, and CO emissions were 182.4, 7,996.6, 1,681.6, and 239.6 tons, respectively. The total environmental cost of the emissions was euro41,146,400. Then, we employed air quality modelling by AERMOD. The concentrations of PM10, NOx, SO2, and CO were estimated on a 10 x 10 km domain, which covered the whole Bandirma district. This availed us to identify the most impacted areas by shipping emissions. Although the emissions were higher than other ports in the Marmara Sea, ground-level concentrations were lower. This was related to the effect of meteorology on pollutant dispersion. Consequently, we proposed administrative recommendations in order to manage the environmental impact of the emissions.