Anaerobic membrane systems have been frequently applied for the removal of pollutants from wastewater. Membrane fouling is a challenging issue that decreases membrane life-span and increases costs. Anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) is an emerging technology and many studies have shown its outstanding treatment efficiency and fouling mitigation performance. In this paper, wastewater treatment and fouling mitigation performances of AFMBRs are reviewed in detail. Furthermore, different AFMBR configurations and fouling mitigation strategies are discussed. The information presented indicates that the use of fluidized solid materials is improving organic removal efficiency and fouling mitigation. Activated carbon and other solid fluidized particles have revealed promising results, but membrane damage and loss of energy in the form of dissolved methane are particular concerns for sustainable AFMBR operation. However, future studies should focus on the large-scale application of AFMBR with the feed of diverse wastewater and technologies for the recovery of dissolved methane. Finally, this study comprises highly useful data for the researchers who will conduct future AFMBR studies.