OPTIK, vol.283, pp.170921, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
itanium oxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by the sol-gel spin-coating technique. The influences of indium (In), hafnium (Hf), and In&Hf doping on electrochemical and structural properties were investigated. The structural properties of undoped and doped TiO2 were investigated using thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical properties were investigated using ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, and band gap energies were calculated using the Tauc method from transmission measurement. The results showed that TiO2 had better electrochemical properties, and the band gap increased with In&Hf doping.
Keywords: Metal ion doping; Indium; Hafnium; Titanium oxide; Cathodic electrochromic film; Sol-gel