A critical review on renewable battery thermal management system using heat pipes

Afzal A., Abdul Razak R., Mohammed Samee A., Kumar R., Ağbulut Ü., Park S. G.

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol.148, no.16, pp.8403-8442, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 148 Issue: 16
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10973-023-12100-9
  • Journal Name: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Index Islamicus, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.8403-8442
  • Keywords: Cylindrical battery cells, Electric vehicle, Heat pipes, Lithium-ion battery, Phase-change materials, Thermal management
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


The critical review presented here exclusively covers the studies on battery thermal management systems (BTMSs), which utilize heat pipes of different structural designs and operating parameters as a cooling medium. The review paper is divided into five major parts, and each part addresses the role of heat pipes in BTMS categorically. Experimental studies, numerical analyses, combined experimental and numerical investigations, optimum utilization of a phase-change material (PCM) with a heat pipe (HP), oscillating heat pipe (OHP), and micro heat pipes combined with PCM for Li-ion BTMS using heat pipes are presented. The usage of HP’s and PCM can keep the temperature of the battery system in the desirable limit for a longer duration compared to other traditional and passive methods. More emphasis is made on how one can achieve a suitable cooling system design and structure, which may tend to enhance the energy density of the batteries, improve thermal performance at maximum and minimum temperature range. Arrangement of battery cells in a pack or module, type of cooling fluid used, heat pipe configuration, type of PCM used, working fluid in a heat pipe, and surrounding environmental conditions are reviewed. According to the study, the battery's effectiveness is significantly influenced by temperature. The usage of flat HPs and heat sink proves to be the best cooling method for keeping the battery working temperature below 50 °C and reduces the heat sink thermal resistance by 30%. With an intake temperature of 25 °C and a discharge rate of 1 L per minute, an HP that uses water as a coolant is also effective at regulating battery cell temperature and maintaining it below the permissible 55 °C range. Using beeswax as a PCM in HPs reduces the temperature of BTMS by up to 26.62 °C, while the usage of RT44 in HPs reduces the temperature of BTMS by 33.42 °C. The use of fins along with copper spreaders drastically decreases the temperature capability of HPTMS by 11 °C. MHPA shows excellent performance in controlling the battery temperature within 40 °C. The effective thermal management can be done by incorporating heat pipe alone or by coupling with liquid cooling or metal plate. However, extensive and extended research is required to improve thermal management to safely and effectively use the battery for day-to-day applications.