Antioxidant Enzyme and Element Status in Heroin Addiction or Heroin Withdrawal in Rats: Effect of Melatonin and Vitamin E Plus Se

CEMEK M., Büyükokuroğlu M., Hazman Ö., Bulut S., Konuk M., Birdane Y.

BIOLOGICAL TRACE ELEMENT RESEARCH, vol.139, no.1, pp.41-54, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 139 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12011-010-8634-0
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.41-54
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: No


Heroin use, withdrawal syndrome, and heroin-related deaths are still the most serious public health problems. Antioxidants and bio-elements are essential for metabolism in living organisms. To our knowledge, there are no data about the effect of antioxidant therapy on the levels of bio-elements and antioxidant enzymes in the naloxone (NX)-induced heroin withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present study for the first time, we have investigated the role of antioxidant therapy, melatonin, and vitamin E plus Se, on the trace and major elements and antioxidant enzymes in the heroin addiction or heroin withdrawal in rats. Glutathione peroxidase levels were increased and catalase levels were decreased in the all study groups when compared to the sham group. The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the fixed dose of heroin (FDH) given group was lower; however, in the variable doses of heroin (VDH) given group SOD level was higher. Furthermore, in withdrawal syndrome, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Ti levels were diminished and Al, Ca, and Cu levels were increased in the FDH+NX group. Moreover, Mg, Mn, and Se levels were also diminished and Al level was increased in the VDH+NX group. In conclusion, our results obviously indicated that heroin effected both bio-element status and antioxidant enzyme activities and, exogenous melatonin or vE+Se therapy might relieve on the element and antioxidant enzyme the destructive activity caused by heroin.