Ultrasound versus Light: Exploring Photophysicochemical and Sonochemical Properties of Phthalocyanine-Based Therapeutics, Theoretical Study, and In Vitro Evaluations


Güzel E., Atmaca G. , Kuznetsov A. E. , Turkkol A., Bilgin M. D. , Erdoğmuş A.

ACS APPLIED BIO MATERIALS, vol.5, no.3, pp.1139-1150, 2022 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 5 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsabm.1c01199
  • Journal Name: ACS APPLIED BIO MATERIALS
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index, Scopus, BIOSIS, Compendex
  • Page Numbers: pp.1139-1150
  • Keywords: phthalocyanine, sensitizer, photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, therapeutics, time-dependent DFT, MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS, MOLECULAR-ORBITAL METHODS, PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, BASIS-SETS, CANCER, PHOTOSENSITIZERS, SPECTROELECTROCHEMISTRY, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, 3RD-ROW, ATOMS

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications carried out with the assistance of ultrasound have attracted significant attention in recent years. The use of phthalocyanines, which are an important component as photosensitizers in PDT, is becoming more important day by day. In therapeutic applications, phthalocyanines can promote the production of reactive oxygen species. Motivated by this fact, the syntheses of metal-free (2), gallium (3), and indium (4) phthalocyanines have been achieved by substituting 4-(cinnamyloxy)phthalonitrile for the first time to evaluate their therapeutic applications. Additionally, photophysicochemical, sonophotochemical, and in vitro evaluations of phthalocyanines have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the use of phthalocyanines with different metal ions as potential photosensitizers for sonophotodynamic therapy (SPDT) applications in gastric cancer cell lines. The results show that the quantum yield of the generation of singlet oxygen increased in sonophotochemical studies (Phi(Delta) = 0.55 (2), 0.85 (3), 0.96 (4)), compared to photochemical studies (Phi(Delta) = 0.22 (2), 0.61 (3), 0.78 (4)). The density functional theory (DFT) results are in good agreement with the experimental results and suggest increased reactivity of phthalocyanines 3 and 4 in various redox processes, thus implying their applicability and usefulness as potential therapeutic agents. These phthalocyanines are effective sensitizers for PDT, sonodynamic therapy (SDT), and SPDT against MKN-28 gastric cancer cell line in vitro. All three treatments decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in the gastric cancer cell line. However, indium phthalocyanine (4)-mediated SPDT was a more effective treatment modality compared to indium phthalocyanine (4)-mediated PDT and SDT. Also, indium phthalocyanine (4) was found to be a more effective sensitizer to activate apoptosis compared to the other phthalocyanines. To sum up, phthalocyanine-mediated SPDT enhances the cytotoxic effect on gastric cancer cells more than the effect of SDT or PDT alone.