CPUD '22 / VII. International City Planning and Urban Design Conference, İstanbul, Turkey, 01 April 2022, vol.1, pp.36-53
Istanbul is a unique city in terms of its historical layers, geographical location and socio-cultural dynamics. This situation has also shaped the city silhouette through monumental structures and multi-layered built environment. Concerning these, studies on the historical skyline of Istanbul focus on the Historical Peninsula, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. However, high-rise buildings, which increased in number after 1985, mega-projects that directed the spatial transformation of the city after 2000, and controversial transportation projects are considered critical issues that threaten the city's silhouette. In this direction, the Golden Horn Metro Bridge is another controversial structure in terms of its relationship with the Suleymaniye Mosque and its Associated Component Area of World Heritage Site and its effect on the silhouette of the Golden Horn. The bridge, which construction started in 2009, was criticized by UNESCO regarding its form, and the necessity of searching for alternative forms was expressed. Although it is subject to revision, at the point reached today, the inclined suspensions, pylons and height of the bridge reduce the visibility of the universal values in the area, and experts describe the bridge as a negative and permanent effect.
In the research, it was aimed to understand the size of the visual impact created by the bridge and to measure its effect on the historical silhouette through visual attention. A field study was carried out within the scope of the research, and reciprocal points were determined on the axis of Eminönü-Unkapanı and Karakoy-Azapkapı. Field photographs taken from the determined points and the Golden Horn waterline were analyzed by 3M VAS, visual attention software. In the analysis, the values of the visual attention probabilities (92% accuracy) of the bridge and other monumental structures affecting the silhouette were compared. As a result of the research, it has been seen that the Golden Horn Metro Bridge directs the visual focus of the area to itself and reduces the visibility of the historical silhouette by coming to the forefront in the gaze sequences of the users.