An All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery: A Comprehensive Equivalent Circuit Model

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Yesilyurt M. S., YAVAŞOĞLU H. A.

Energies, vol.16, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/en16042040
  • Journal Name: Energies
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: flow battery, vanadium battery, battery model, MATLAB
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this paper, we propose a sophisticated battery model for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), which are a promising energy storage technology due to their design flexibility, low manufacturing costs on a large scale, indefinite lifetime, and recyclable electrolytes. Primarily, fluid distribution is analysed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) considering only half-cells. Based on the analysis results, a novel model is developed in the MATLAB Simulink environment which is capable of identifying both the steady-state and dynamic characteristics of VRFBs. Unlike the majority of published studies, the inherent characteristics of the flow battery, such as shunt current, ion diffusion, and pumping energy consumption, are considered. Furthermore, simplified charge transfer resistance (CTR) is taken into account based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement results. The accuracy of the model was determined by comparing the simulation results generated by the equivalent circuit battery model developed in this study with real datasets. The obtained results indicate that the developed model has an accuracy of 3% under the sample operating conditions selected. This study can also be used to fill the gap left by the absence of the VRFB battery model in commonly used programs for renewable energy systems, such as TRNSYS.