Comparative assessments of two integrated systems with/without fuel cells utilizing liquefied ammonia as a fuel for vehicular applications

EZZAT M. F., Dincer I.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, vol.43, no.9, pp.4597-4608, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


In the current study, two different integrated systems for vehicular applications are presented and thermodynamically analyzed. The first system consists of liquefied ammonia tank, dissociation and separation unit (DSC) for decomposition of ammonia and an internal combustion engine (ICE) to power the vehicle. The second system is a hybrid system consisting of liquefied ammonia tank, DSC unit, a small ICE and a fuel cell system. In the second system, the main power unit is fuel cell and a supplementary internal combustion engines is also utilized. The exhaust gasses emitted from the ICE are used to provide the required heat for the thermal decomposition process of ammonia. The ICE is fueled with a mix of ammonia and hydrogen generated from the DSC unit that is installed in the two systems. Hydrogen generated from DSC unit will be utilized to operate fuel cell installed in system 2. The proposed systems are analyzed and assessed both energetically and exergetically. A comprehensive parametric study is carried out for comparative assessments to determine the influence of altering design and operating parameters such as the amount of ammonia fuel supplied to the two systems on the performance of the two systems. The overall energy and exergy efficiencies for system 1 and system 2 are found to be 61.89%, 63.34%, 34.73% and 38.44% respectively. The maximum exergy destruction rate in the two systems occurred in the ICE. (C) 2017 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.