Effect of grape pomace usage in chocolate spread formulation on textural, rheological and digestibility properties

Acan B. G. , Kilicli M., Bursa K., TOKER Ö. S. , Palabiyik I., Gulcu M., ...Daha Fazla

LWT, cilt.138, 2021 (SCI Expanded İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier


© 2020 Elsevier LtdIn this study, dried grape (Cabernet sauvignon) pomace (DGP) as a by-product of wine production was used in the chocolate spread (CS) instead of various amounts of sugar and milk originated powders (MOP; skimmed milk and demineralized whey powder 1:1, w/w). The formulations of CS samples were determined using mixture design method. The sugar, MOP and DGP concentrations changed between 35 and 50, 0.066–8.000 and 0.23–15 g/100 g, respectively. According to the results, the consistency coefficient (K) and flow behavior index values of CS samples changed between 8.10 and 28.50 Pa.sn and 0.52–0.71, respectively. In addition, firmness and spreadability parameters were determined between 0.80-1.42 N and 2.15–4.24 N mm, respectively. Total phenolic content in CS samples ranged from 3415 to 13,754 mg GAE/kg and their digestibility ranged between 25% and 84%. Also, the digestibility of resveratrol was determined between 47.6% and 95.7% at different DGP concentrations. All of the established models successfully described the relation with R2 values higher than 0.800. Textural and rheological parameters as well as sensory characteristics of the samples indicated that DGP may be used as a healthy and low-cost ingredient in CS formulation to partially substitute sugar and MOP.