Effect of grape pomace usage in chocolate spread formulation on textural, rheological and digestibility properties


Acan B. G. , Kilicli M., Bursa K., TOKER Ö. S. , Palabiyik I., Gulcu M., ...More

LWT, vol.138, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 138
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110451
  • Journal Name: LWT
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Grape pomace, Chocolate spread, Confectionery, Mixture design, Digestibility, DIETARY FIBER, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, FOOD, FAT, POLYPHENOLS, MILK, MICROSTRUCTURE, SWEETENERS, PARAMETERS, WASTE
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

© 2020 Elsevier LtdIn this study, dried grape (Cabernet sauvignon) pomace (DGP) as a by-product of wine production was used in the chocolate spread (CS) instead of various amounts of sugar and milk originated powders (MOP; skimmed milk and demineralized whey powder 1:1, w/w). The formulations of CS samples were determined using mixture design method. The sugar, MOP and DGP concentrations changed between 35 and 50, 0.066–8.000 and 0.23–15 g/100 g, respectively. According to the results, the consistency coefficient (K) and flow behavior index values of CS samples changed between 8.10 and 28.50 Pa.sn and 0.52–0.71, respectively. In addition, firmness and spreadability parameters were determined between 0.80-1.42 N and 2.15–4.24 N mm, respectively. Total phenolic content in CS samples ranged from 3415 to 13,754 mg GAE/kg and their digestibility ranged between 25% and 84%. Also, the digestibility of resveratrol was determined between 47.6% and 95.7% at different DGP concentrations. All of the established models successfully described the relation with R2 values higher than 0.800. Textural and rheological parameters as well as sensory characteristics of the samples indicated that DGP may be used as a healthy and low-cost ingredient in CS formulation to partially substitute sugar and MOP.