Detailed Analysis of the Effects of Viscosity Measurement Errors Caused by Heat Transfer during Continuous Viscosity Measurements under Various Temperature Changes and the Proposed Solution of a Non-Dimensional Parameter Called the Akpek Number

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Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol.13, no.19, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app131910684
  • Journal Name: Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: heat transfer, non-dimensional parameter, viscosity measurement
  • Yıldız Technical University Affiliated: Yes


It is extremely important to gather the viscosity behavior of fluids accurately for industries and academia. There is no better method than viscosity measurement to detect changes in the specific characteristics of the materials. However, viscosity measurement is indeed a very sensitive process. In nature, fluids are involved in widely various containers, and they are affected by serious temperature deviations. It is a necessity for viscometers to have the capability to obtain accurate data from all types of containers of fluids even in serious temperature variations in order to understand the natural phenomena inside the fluids. Conventional viscometers mainly neglect the effect of sudden temperature deviations inside the fluids, or they need to use very expensive water bath systems that stabilize the temperature around the test fluids, which is not feasible at all. In this research, the effects of non-uniform temperature fields are analysed detailly to confirm that even in extremely limited amounts, serious viscosity and temperature deviations may occur. Experiments were performed in two parts. The first part was conducted using several thermocouples with different test fluids to find out the effects of thermal conduction and convection. For the second part, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was utilized to comprehend the flow movement within the test fluids. It was shown that even for small volumes and even in very controlled environments, an almost 35% viscosity measurement error (VME) occurs. Finally, as a solution to this problem, a new non-dimensional parameter called the Akpek number was proposed. The Akpek number enables the estimation of VMEs in any possible case. VME is a very crucial obstacle that has urgency to be illuminated by researchers and scientists to improve fluid characteristics. The main goal of this research is to illuminate the importance of this problem and offer a potential solution. The final results are supported by experimental data and numerical simulations using OpenFOAM.