This paper discusses Cordoba as one of the most iconic cities in human history and particularly in Europe. As part of the Andalusia region in southern Spain, Cordoba was the center of many conflicts that helped in shaping the European architecture and the urban fabric. Under the Umayyad rule, Cordoba was the largest and arguably most beautiful city in the World. However, the passage of time has not been very kind to it. Unfortunately, it has suffered from severely diminished of its historical and strategic value. This paper analysed Cordoba's history through different ages. Then, we focused on the peak of the city when it was under the Islamic rule when it became the center for culture and arts. At the end, we analysed how the city has faced a drastic architectural transformation that was carried out by the Spanish when they took control of the city during the Spanish Reconquista. We found how different cultures and religions throughout history have affected the architectural layers of Cordoba. These layers have exposed either demolish, overlap or dominate of one layer over another layer. Finally, we realized that this conflict created present Cordoba; the strong cultural, economic, touristic center in Southern Spain.