Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of logistics performance on the carbon (CO2) emissions of Balkan countries. Design/methodology/approach Fixed-effects panel regression analysis is used to estimate the causal relationship between CO2 emissions and logistic performances of Balkan countries. Logistics performance is measured by logistics performance index (LPI) which was published by the World Bank in 2007, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016 and used for ranking countries by means of their logistics performance. LPI is based on six main indicators: customs procedures, logistics costs and the quality of the infrastructure for overland and maritime transport. As a measure of carbon emissions of sampled countries, the natural logarithm of carbon dioxide emission per capita is used in this study. Findings The results obtained reveal that there is a positive and significant relationship between logistics performance and CO2 performances of the sampled Balkan countries. Research limitations/implications This study is based on only 11 Balkan countries. In this sense, the data used in the analysis is limited. Originality/value Considering the important geostrategic position of the Balkan region, logistics sector has an important role for the development of the countries in that region. In this sense, the findings of this study may provide useful insights for policymakers to achieve sustainable economic development. Furthermore, as far as the authors know, this is the first study that focuses on the relationship between logistics performance and carbon emissions of Balkan countries.